Day 2 :
National Institutes of Health, USA
Keynote: Complex actions of transcription factors in mediating cytokine biology in the immune response
Time : 8:30-8:55
Warren J. Leonard received his A.B. from Princetonand M.D. from Stanford, and now isChief, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Director, Immunology Center, NHLBI. Dr. Leonard has received many awards, including the American Association of Immunologists (AAI)-Huang Foundation Meritorious Career Award and the Honorary Lifetime Membership Award of the International Cytokine and Interferon Society. He has more than 300 publications and 19 patents. He is on multiple editorial boards, is past-president of the International Cytokine Society, a member of the Board of the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences, a Fellow of the AAAS, and a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies.
Six cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21) share the common cytokine receptor chain, which is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. These cytokines all activate JAK1 and JAK3, and collectively they control a broad range of biological processes within the immune system, in part via their activation of STAT proteins. IL-2, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 dominantly activate STAT5A and STAT5B, IL-4 activates STAT6, and IL-21 activates primarily STAT3. IL-2 via STAT5 broadly regulates Th differentiation, promoting Th1 and Th2 differentiation via its induction of IL-12R2 and IL-4R, and inhibiting Th17 differentiation, in part by its repression of Il6st and induction of Tbx21, as well as by potential STAT5 competition with STAT3. IL-2 also promotes Th9 differentiation, which is inhibited by IL-21, and these opposing effects of these cytokines correlate with the repression of BCL6 by IL-2 versus its induction by IL-21. Interestingly, we and others have also shown that STAT3 in combination with IRF4-BATF complexes globally mediate IL-21-dependent transcription as well as Th17 differentiation. These findings underscore the complex contributions of c family cytokines and the multiple STAT proteins they regulate in controlling the immune response.
Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Time : 8:55-9:20
Yehuda Shoenfeld is the founder and head of the Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, at the Sheba Medical Center which is affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine in Tel-Aviv University, in Israel. Dr. Shoenfeld is the Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases at the Tel-Aviv University.rnHis clinical and scientific works focus on autoimmune and rheumatic diseases, and he has published more than 1700 papers in journals such as New Eng J Med, Nature, Lancet, Proc Nat Acad Scie, J Clin Invest, J Immunol, Blood, FASEB, J Exp Med, Circulation, Cancer and others. His articles have had over 31,000 citations. He has written more than three hundred and fifty chapters in books, and has authored and edited 25 books, some of which became cornerstones in science and clinical practice, such as \"The Mosaic of Autoimmunity\", \"Infections and Autoimmunity\" and the textbook \"Autoantibodies\" and \"Diagnostic criteria of autoimmune diseases\", all of which were published by Elsevier and sold by the thousands.rnrnHe is on the editorial board of 43 journals in the field of rheumatology and autoimmunity and is the founder and the editor of the IMAJ (Israel Medical Association Journal) the representative journal of science and medicine in the English language in Israel, and also is the founder and Editor of the \"Autoimmunity Reviews\" (Elsevier) (Impact factor 6.6) and Co-Editor of \"Journal of Autoimmunity\" (Impact factor 7.4). For the last twenty years Dr. Shoenfeld has been the Editor of \"Harefuah\" The Israel journal in medicine (Hebrew) and he has edited the Israel Medical Encyclopedia (10 volumes, 5000 items). He had organized over 20 international congresses in autoimmunity. He is the editor-in-chief for Journal of Autoimmunity along with M. Eric Gershwin (University of California, Davis). According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2012 impact factor of 8.145, ranking it 11th out of 137 journals in the category \"Immunology”. This journal is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on all aspects of autoimmunity. It was established in 1988 and is published 8 times per year by Elsevier.rn
Four enigmatic medical conditions were described recently, all characterized by hyperactive immune response and similarrnclinical and laboratory manifestations. Th ese conditions (siliconosis, Gulf War Syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitisrnsyndrome and post-vaccination phenomena) imply that environmental factors may play a role in inducing or aggravatingrnautoimmunity and auto-infl ammation. In rare occasions vaccines may induce autoimmune or auto-infl ammatory conditionsrnboth in animals and in humans. Th ese conditions - defi ned diseases (Gullian-Barre syndrome) or enigmatic ones - havernbeen reported following vaccines and vaccination protocols. Th e susceptibility factors and the temporal association betweenrnvaccines and these immune mediated reactions remain to be defi ned; however, the similarities between vaccines and infectionsrnand the addition of adjuvants to almost every vaccine are considered major contributors to such adverse events. In MMF arncause was clearly delineated. MMF is a rare condition caused by deposition of alum, an adjuvant in diff erent vaccines, whichrncause an immune mediated muscles disease. In genetically prone patients, alum may induce this syndrome. Another similarrnphenomenon is exposure to silicones. In a study, a group of patients with silicone breast implants had a statistically signifi cantrnincrease in 16 of 28 investigated symptoms consistent with fi bromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome criteria, comparedrnto a group of women who underwent reduction mammoplasties, congruent with the FDA’s establishment of a link betweenrnfi bromyalgia and ruptured silicone implants. A common denominator to these syndromes is the trigger entailing adjuvantrnactivity. We suggest including these four conditions in one syndrome, the \"Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by adjuvants\" (ASIA).